Mustards

Mustards are alkylating agents that are chemically similar to the mustard agents used in chemical warfare.

Cyclophosphamide

Brand/Trade Names: Cytoxan, Neosar, Endoxan, Cytophosphane

Manufacturers: Transo-Pharm USA, Fermion Oy, Orion Corporation. Johnson Matthey, Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co.

Formula: C7H15Cl2N2O2P

Mechanism: Alkylating

Class: Mustard

Administration: Intravenous, oral

Notes: Prodrug that converts to active drug inside the body.  Approved by the FDA in 1959.  Used for treatment of Ovarian cancer, Retinoblastoma, Chronic myelogenous leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, Multiple myeloma, Mycosis fungoides, Neuroblastoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia,  Acute monocytic leukemia, Acute myeloid leukemia, Breast cancer, Chronic granulocytic leukemia. and Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Chlorambucil

Brand/Trade Names: Leukeran

Manufacturers: Biophore India Pharmaceuticals, Sionc Pharmaceuticals, SGMR Pharmaceuticals, Farmhispania S.A.

Formula: C14H19Cl2NO2

Mechanism: Alkylating

Class: Mustard

Administration: Intravenous, oral

Notes:  Approved by FDA in 1957.  Used in treatment of Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma .

Mechlorethamine

Brand/Trade Names: Mustargen, Mechlorethamine Hydrochloride, mustine, nitrogen mustard, and HN2

Manufacturer: Sigma-Aldrich Corporation

Formula: C5H11Cl2N

Mechanism: Alkylating

Class: Mustard

Administration: Intravenous, topical

Notes:  Approved by the FDA in 2013.  Used for treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, bronchogenic carcinoma, and mycosis fungoides.

Bendamustine

Brand/Trade Names: Ribomustin, Treanda, and 4-[5-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl]butanoic acid.

Manufacturers: Teva Pharmaceuticals, Biophore India Pharmaceuticals, Dr Reddy’s Laboratories, Beijing Huikand Boyuan Chemical Techm,  Euticals.

Formula: C16H21Cl2N3O2

Mechanism: Alkylating

Class: Mustard

Administration: Intravenous

Notes:  Approved by the FDA in 2008.  More. Used for treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Estramustine

Brand/Trade Names: Emcyt, Estracit

Manufacturers: Cipla, Excella, Pamakemu Asia, Pfizer 

Formula: C23H31Cl2NO3

Mechanism: Alkylating

Class: Mustard

Administration: Oral

Notes:  Approved by the FDA in 1981.  Used in treatment of prostate cancer.